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引用本文:罗其友,高明杰,张烁,伦闰琪.中国马铃薯产业国际比较分析[J].中国农业资源与区划,2021,42(7):1~8
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中国马铃薯产业国际比较分析
罗其友,高明杰,张烁,伦闰琪
中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京 100081
摘要:
目的 马铃薯是粮菜兼用作物,马铃薯对国家粮食安全和山地丘陵地区乡村特色产业构建具有重要支撑作用。文章通过马铃薯产业国际对比分析,明确我国马铃薯产业发展的比较优势和比较劣势,并提出相关对策建议。方法 该文从产业结构、生产成本、市场价格、贸易、消费等多角度,运用比较分析法,采用2010—2018年统计数据,对我国与世界其他大国马铃薯产业进行定量比较分析。结果 (1)2018年我国马铃薯具有一定国际竞争力,生产规模世界第一,产业结构以种植业为主体,加工业占比仅为30.00%,仅为欧美的1/3左右;(2)2015年我国马铃薯生产成本0.95元/kg,2018年我国马铃薯田间价格为1.30元/kg,与欧美基本持平,2011—2015年平均资本利润率32.12%,略高于欧美发达地区,但2018年马铃薯单产19.72t/hm2,仅为欧美的1/2左右,土地产出率为2.55万元/hm2,仅为欧美发达地区的1/2;(3)2018年马铃薯出口稳定增长,以附加值较低的鲜薯为主,国际市场占有率2.04%;(4)2018年马铃薯人均消费量43.62kg,不及俄罗斯的1/2,消费增长潜力较大,且亚洲马铃薯以鲜薯菜用消费为主,欧美地区以马铃薯加工品消费为主,俄罗斯将马铃薯作为主食消费。结论 应从品种资源引进、马铃薯品种选育、标准薯田建设、国际马铃薯市场开拓和加大马铃薯产业扶持力度等方面着手,促进我国马铃薯产业健康发展。
关键词:  马铃薯  生产  成本收益  贸易  消费  国际比较
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20210701
分类号:F326.1
基金项目:国家马铃薯产业技术体系项目(CARS-9)
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON POTATO INDUSTRY BETWEEN CHINA AND OTHER COUNTRIES
Luo Qiyou, Gao Mingjie, Zhang Shuo, Lun Runqi
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
Potato is a food and vegetable crop, which plays an important role in ensuring national food security and the construction of rural characteristic industry in mountainous and hilly areas. This paper aims to clarify the comparative advantages and disadvantages of China's potato industry through the international comparative analysis of potato industry, and put forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions. From the perspectives of industrial structure, production cost, market price, trade and consumption respectively, the status of potato industry development between China and other advanced countries were quantitatively analyzed by using the statistical data from 2010 to 2018. As a result, there are four conclusions as follows. (1) China's potato has a certain international competitiveness in 2018, the production scale is the largest in the world, and the industrial structure is dominated by planting industry, and the processing industry accounts for 30.00%, only about 1/3 of that in Europe and the United States; (2) the production cost of potato in China is 0.95 yuan/kg in 2015, and the field price is 1.30 yuan/kg in 2018, which is basically the same as that in Europe and the United States, and the average capital profit rate is 32.12% from 2011 to 2015, slightly higher than that in Western Europe and the United States, but the potato yield per unit area is 19.72t/hm2 in 2018, which is only about 1/2 of that of Western Europe and the United States, land output rate is 2.55 ten thousand yuan/hm2, which is only about 1/2 of that of Western Europe and the United States; (3) potato export is growing steadily in China, mainly fresh potatoes with low added value, only accounting for 2.04% of the international market; (4) the per capita consumption of potato is 43.62kg, less than 1/2 of that of Russia, so the consumption growth potential is great, and in Asia, fresh potatoes are mainly consumed as a vegetable, while in Western Europe and the United States, processed potato products are widely consumed, and in Russia, potatoes are consumed as the staple food. In order to promote the level of development of potato industry in China, the introduction of breed resources, the selection and breeding of potato varieties, the construction of standard potato fields, the development of international potato market and the support of potato industry should be strengthened.
Key words:  potato  production  cost-benefit  trade  consumption  international comparison
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