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引用本文:叶仕安,杜芳娟,吴克华,刘宇炫.世界遗产地乡村社区参与旅游发展及其机制研究——以施秉喀斯特为例[J].中国农业资源与区划,2022,43(7):294~302
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世界遗产地乡村社区参与旅游发展及其机制研究——以施秉喀斯特为例
叶仕安1,杜芳娟2,吴克华1,刘宇炫1
1.贵州省山地资源研究所,贵阳 550001;2.贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院,贵阳 550001
摘要:
目的 乡村振兴战略背景下,遗产地旅游发展与乡村建设息息相关,因此探究遗产地乡村社区参与旅游及其背后发展变化的机制问题,对于新时代乡村振兴事业具有重大意义。方法 文章运用扎根理论为主的质性研究方法,以施秉喀斯特世界自然遗产地为案例,梳理了遗产地邻近乡村社区参与旅游20余年的发展历程,并通过三级编码构建遗产地乡村社区参与旅游影响机制概念模型。结果 遗产地乡村社区参与旅游呈现阶段性,经历了早期的“搭便车”型参与、自发组织型参与到目前的衰退型参与等3个阶段,易受外界环境干扰,呈现脆弱性,在政策和旅游地头衔变动后,社区参与旅游逐步走向衰落;遗产地乡村社区参与旅游影响机制包括“遗产制度约束—地方决策失衡—社区响应滞后”3个维度,遗产制度是旅游地属性变动下的外部制度性约束,地方决策是政府治理模式下的管理性失衡,社区响应是群体发展意识与能力欠缺下的内部反应性滞后。结论 遗产旅游地日渐兴盛之下,边缘型乡村社区参与旅游受不同层级制度约束,地方政府有效规划、合理配置资源,社区居民提升自我能力,促进社区参与可持续。
关键词:  世界遗产地  社区参与旅游  影响机制  扎根理论  施秉县
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20220729
分类号:K901.6
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题“喀斯特高原石漠化综合治理与山地旅游产业技术与示范”(2016YFC0502606);科技平台及人才团队计划“贵州省山地特色休闲养生旅游资源开发与服务企业行动计划”(黔科合平台人才[2017]5720);贵州省2016年度高层次创新人才项目([2016]21);贵州科学院创新人才团队能力提升工程“喀斯特山地旅游资源开发利用创新人才团队”(黔科院人才201908)
THE RURAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND ITS MECHANISM IN WORLD NATURAL HERITAGE SITE——A CASE STUDY OF SHIBING KARST
Ye Shi′an1, Du Fangjuan2, Wu Kehua1, Liu Yuxuan1
1.Guizhou Institute of Mountain Resources, Guiyang 550001, Guizhou , China;2.School of Karst Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, Guizhou, China
Abstract:
In the context of the rural revitalization, tourism development of heritage sites is closely related to rural construction. Therefore, exploring the rural community participation in tourism in heritage sites and the mechanism of development, which is great significance to the rural revitalization in the new era. This study took the Shibing Karst world natural heritage site as a case study, used the grounded theory-based qualitative research methods, and sorted out the process of portal rural communities surrounding with heritage site participation in tourism development in more than twenty years, further constructed a conceptual model of the effect mechanism of rural communities in heritage sites participation in tourism through the three-level coding. The results were listed as follows. Rural communities in heritage sites participation in tourism presented the stage feature from the early “free rider” participation to spontaneous organizational participation to the current development decline. Rural communities in heritage sites participation in tourism were susceptible to external environmental disturbances, showing fragility. After changes in policies and tourist destination titles, community participation skipped the stable development stage and regresses. The influence mechanism of rural communities in heritage sites participation in tourism included three dimensions: “constraints of the heritage system—imbalance of local decision-making—delayed community response”. The heritage system was an external institutional constraint under the change of the attributes of tourism destinations, and local decision-making was a managerial imbalance under the government governance model, and the community response was an internal response lag due to lack of group development awareness and capacity. In summary, with the increasing prosperity of heritage tourist destinations, the marginal rural community participation in tourism is restricted by different levels of systems. Therefore, the local government should effectively plan and allocate resources rationally, and community residents should enhance their own abilities, so as to promote the sustainability of community participation.
Key words:  world heritage site  community participation in tourism  influencing mechanism  grounded theory  Shibing county
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