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引用本文:苗晓颖,胡继连,王秀鹃.中国蔬菜生产“以水定地”优化布局研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2022,43(7):205~215
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中国蔬菜生产“以水定地”优化布局研究
苗晓颖1,胡继连1,2,王秀鹃3
1.山东农业大学经济管理学院,泰安 271018;2.山东农业大学马克思主义学院,泰安 271018;3.山东农业大学公共管理学院,泰安 271018
摘要:
目的 文章以中国蔬菜产业布局为研究对象,通过分析蔬菜生产重心演变路径、蔬菜布局地域集中度以及蔬菜生产空间布局与水资源禀赋的拟合度,为优化我国蔬菜生产空间布局、促进农业节水、保障农业用水安全提供参考依据。方法 采用1995—2018年我国蔬菜产业的相关数据,运用重心模型、集中度指数等方法,对蔬菜生产的区位特征进行研究,并构建蔬菜生产空间布局与水资源禀赋拟合度指标,对蔬菜生产空间布局与水资源禀赋拟合度进行分析。结果 我国蔬菜生产重心呈现出整体上向西南方向移动的新趋势,蔬菜生产的地域集中度已经达到较高水平,但蔬菜空间布局与水资源禀赋的匹配度不高,导致蔬菜生产过度依赖人工灌溉,消耗甚至是浪费了大量的水资源。结论 遵循“以水定地”原则,提出蔬菜产业空间布局与水资源禀赋条件优化匹配的政策建议:推进大宗蔬菜生产重心“西南移”,充分利用南方水资源优势,节约北方水资源;推进耐储运蔬菜的“南菜北运”,解决北方消费市场的蔬菜供给问题;推进北方蔬菜生产“转型升级”,转型生产精细时鲜特菜和节水型蔬菜,升级采用微灌、精灌技术,保持北方蔬菜基地经济水平。
关键词:  蔬菜生产  空间布局  空间集中度  以水定地  空间布局优化
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20220721
分类号:F326.13
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“华北地下水超采区‘以水定地’农业布局优化模式研究”(42007411)
STUDY ON THE OPTIMIZED LAYOUT WITH "WATER-BASED PLANTING" OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CHINA
Miao Xiaoying1, Hu Jilian1,2, Wang Xiujuan3
1.College of Economy Management, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China;2.College of Marxism, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China;3.College of Public Administration, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China
Abstract:
This paper takes the vegetable industry layout of China as the research object. By analyzing the evolution path of vegetable production center, the regional concentration of vegetable layout and the fitting degree of vegetable production space layout and water resource endowment, this paper provides reference for optimizing the vegetable production space layout, promoting agricultural water saving and ensuring the safety of agricultural water use in China. Applying the relevant data of vegetable industry in China from 1995 to 2018, the location characteristics of vegetable production were studied by using the Center of Gravity Model and Modified Location Quotient, and the fitting degree of vegetable production space layout and water resource endowment was analyzed by constructing the fitting index of vegetable production space layout and water resource endowment. The results showed that the center of gravity of vegetable production in China showed a new trend of moving to the southwest as a whole. The regional concentration of vegetable production had reached a high level, but the matching degree between vegetable spatial layout and water resource endowment was not high, which led to the excessive dependence of vegetable production on artificial irrigation and the consumption or even waste of a large amount of water resources. In summary, following the principle of “water-based planting”, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions for optimizing the matching of vegetable industry spatial distribution and water resource endowment conditions as follows: promoting the “Southwest shift” of major vegetable production, making full use of the water resources advantage in the South to save water resources in the North; promoting the “North-South vegetable transportation” to solve the problem of vegetable supply in the northern consumer market; promoting the “transformation and upgrading” of vegetable production in the North, transforming and producing fine fresh special vegetables and water-saving vegetables, upgrading the technology of micro-irrigation and fine irrigation, and maintaining the economic level of the Northern vegetable base.
Key words:  vegetable production  space layout  spatial concentration  water-based planting  optimization of spatial layout
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