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引用本文:李俊茹,石自忠,胡向东.我国奶业全要素生产率时空分异特征分析[J].中国农业资源与区划,2022,43(7):92~103
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我国奶业全要素生产率时空分异特征分析
李俊茹1,石自忠2,胡向东2
1.中国农业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083;2.中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所,北京 100081
摘要:
目的 测定奶业全要素生产率时空分异特征及内在机理,为奶业生产效率及国际竞争力提升提供决策参考。方法 文章基于2010—2018年奶牛养殖成本收益数据,通过构建DEA-Malmquist指数测度不同规模奶牛养殖全要素生产率及时空分异特征。结果 (1)我国奶业全要素生产率呈现出增长态势;2010—2018年大规模奶牛全要素生产率年均增长2.52%,中规模、小规模及散养奶牛全要素生产率年均分别增长2.42%、1.58%和2.48%。(2)纯技术进步是奶牛全要素生产率增长的关键推动因素;除大规模外,纯技术效率变化对散养、中小规模养殖推动作用明显不足;规模效率变化及规模技术进步对奶牛养殖效率提升支撑作用明显。(3)不同地区奶业全要素生产率变化特征明显,绝大多数地区奶牛养殖全要素生产率呈现出增长态势;东部地区散养及中小规模奶牛全要素生产率优势明显,中部地区大规模奶牛全要素生产率具备较强优势。结论 应加大科技创新及成果转化政策供给,强化科技创新及成果转化要素投入,完善科技成果转化及推广体系建设,助推奶业发展科技进步支撑力度及奶产品国际市场竞争力提升。
关键词:  奶业  奶产品  全要素生产率  科技进步  DEA-Malmquist指数
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20220710
分类号:F326.3
基金项目:中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(10-IAED-01-2022);国家自然科学基金重点项目“基于可持续发展的畜牧业现代化路径与政策支持体系研究”(72033009)
ANALYSIS ON THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF CHINA’S DAIRY INDUSTRY
Li Junru1, Shi Zizhong2, Hu Xiangdong2
1.College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China;2.Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
In order to provide a decision-making reference for the improvement of dairy production efficiency and international competitiveness, this study aims to measure the spatio-temporal characteristics of the dairy industry's total factor productivity and its internal mechanism. Based on the data on the cost and benefit of dairy cow breeding from 2010 to 2018, a DEA-Malmquist index was constructed to measure the characteristics of total factor productivity and its spatio-temporal evolution of dairy cows in different scales. The research results showed that: (1) Total factor productivity of China's dairy industry showed a growth trend. From 2010 to 2018, the total factor productivity of large-scale dairy cows increased by 2.52% annually, and that of medium-scale, small-scale and free-range dairy cows increased respectively by 2.42%, 1.58% and 2.48% annually. (2) Pure technological progress was the key driving factor for the growth of total factor productivity of dairy cows. Except the large-scale, the pure technological efficiency change was not enough to promote the efficiency of the free-range, small and medium-scale breeding. The scale efficiency change and the scale technological progress improved the efficiency of dairy farming obviously. (3) The total factor productivity of the dairy industry in different regions had obvious variation. The total factor productivity of dairy cows in most regions had shown an increasing trend. The eastern region had obvious advantages in the total factor productivity of the free-range and the small and medium scale dairy cows, and the large-scale dairy cow's total factor productivity in the central region had strong advantages. Therefore,it is recommended to increase the supply of policies for technological innovation and achievement transformation, strengthen the factor input of technological innovation and achievement transformation, improve the construction of technological achievement transformation and promotion system, and promote the development of the dairy industry and the improvement of the international market competitiveness of dairy products.
Key words:  dairy industry  dairy products  total factor productivity  technological progress  DEA-Malmquist index
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