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引用本文:廖佳佳,赵耀,陈甜倩,冯喆,赵华甫,吴克宁.基于生态系统服务改进的中国各地农业生态效率研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2021,42(7):200~209
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基于生态系统服务改进的中国各地农业生态效率研究
廖佳佳1,赵耀2,陈甜倩1,冯喆1,3,4,赵华甫1,3,吴克宁1,3
1.中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院,北京 100083;2.纽约州立大学石溪分校,美国纽约州 11790;3.碳中和与国土空间优化重点实验室,北京 100035;4.自然资源部土地整治重点实验室,北京 100035
摘要:
目的 为提高全国农业资源利用率,推动建立资源节约型与环境友好型的可持续“两型农业”,对中国农业生态效率展开研究发现,农田生态系统服务是农业生产的重要产出,但在当前生态效率研究中未得到充分体现。文章通过量化农田生态系统服务价值,有利于权衡农产品供需关系,更好以农田生态系统给人类社会带来的福利为目标来开展农业生产。方法 文章将生态系统服务价值作为期望产出之一,将全国划分为东部地区、东北地区、中部地区和西部地区的4个农业效率研究区域。运用非期望产出数据包络分析方法,计算2014年中国30个省(市、自治区)的农业生态效率,并分析其主要影响因素。结果 (1)中国农业生态效率整体水平良好,平均值为0.945,在空间上表现为东部>东北>西部>中部的空间分布格局。(2)影响全国农业生态效率的关键因素为土地投入、机械投入、化肥投入和水资源投入。农业生态系统服务指标与农业生态效率呈正向相关。土地、农药、劳动力、机械、水资源、化肥、农膜和能源投入、农业产值及碳排放均与之呈负向相关。其中农药投入是最为显著的抑制因子,控制农药投入是提升全国农业效率核心因素。(3)中国农业生态效率空间分异格局是多层影响因素叠加而成,中国农业生态效率损失的原因主要在于资源要素消耗的过量与农业碳排放过多。结论 中国农业生态效率整体上发展较好,但各省市的农业生态效率水平存在较大差异,仍有上升的空间。从投入产出冗余角度来看,目前中国农业生态效率损失的原因主要在于资源要素消耗的过量与农业碳排放过多。在发展中着重加大区域对农业土地的开发投入、推广机械科学技术、减少化肥等污染物投入与提高水资源的利用效率,发展用水技术,保障农业的可持续发展。
关键词:  生态系统服务  农业生态效率  超效率SBM模型  环境因素  中国
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20210723
分类号:F327
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“基于生态系统服务的社会—生态多过程耦合模拟与优化调控”(42071284);“北京及周边地区生态系统服务簇与景观的共现及驱动机制研究”(41901261);碳中和与国土空间优化重点实验室开放基金项目( 2021CNLSO2001 )
STUDY ON AGROECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF CHINESE REGIONS BASED ON IMPROVEMENT OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
Liao Jiajia1, Zhao Yao2, Chen Tianqian1, Feng Zhe1,3,4, Zhao Huafu1,3, Wu Kening1,3
1.School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China;2.Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA 11790, America;3.The Key Laboratory of Carbon Neutralization and Land Space Optimization, Beijing 100035, China;4.Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100035, China
Abstract:
To enhance the utilization rate of agricultural resources in China and foster the establishment of sustainable "two-type agriculture" with resource-saving and environmentally friendly types. Agroecosystem services are an important output of agricultural production, but it is not adequately reflected in the current ecological efficiency research. By quantifying the service value of the farmland ecosystem, this paper is beneficial to trade-off with the supply and demand of agricultural products and better strengthen agricultural production targeted at the benefits brought by the farmland ecosystem to human society. The paper took the agricultural ecosystem service as one of the anticipated outputs and divided the whole country into four research areas in the eastern, northeast, central and western regions. Using the non-expected output Data envelopment analysis method, the agro-ecological efficiency of 30 provincial regions in China was calculated in 2014, and the main influential factors were analyzed. The results of the study showed that: (1) The overall level of agricultural ecological efficiency in China was good, with an average of 0.945. In terms of space, the spatial distribution pattern was the eastern region> northeast region> west region >central region.(2) The core factors influencing the national agro-ecological efficiency were land input, mechanical input, fertilizer input, and water resource input. The index of agro-ecosystem service was positively correlated with agro-ecological efficiency. Land, pesticides, labor, machinery, water resources, fertilizers, agricultural film and energy inputs, the total value of agricultural output, and carbon emissions were negatively related to agroecological efficiency. Among them, pesticide input was the most significant inhibiting factor, and controlling pesticide input was the core factor to improve national agricultural efficiency. (3) The spatial differentiation pattern of China's agricultural ecological efficiency was a combination of multi-layered factors, and the main reason for the loss of China's agricultural ecological efficiency lied in the excessive consumption of resource factors and excessive agricultural carbon emissions. To summary, China's agricultural ecological efficiency is developing well overall, but there are great differences in the level of agroecological efficiency in various provinces and cities, and there is still room for improvement. From the perspective of input-output redundancy, the main reasons for the loss of agricultural ecological efficiency in China are excessive consumption of resource elements and excessive agricultural carbon emissions. In the development, we should pay attention to increasing regional investment in the development of agricultural land, promoting mechanical science and technology, lowering the input of pollutants such as fertilizer and improving the efficiency of water resources, developing water technology, and facilitating sustainable development of agriculture.
Key words:  ecosystem services  agro-ecological efficiency  super-efficiency SBM model  environmental factors  China
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