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引用本文:王秀鹃,蔡威熙,韩若冰,胡继连.麦田喷灌的比较收益、障碍因素与推进对策以兖州运国家庭农场为例[J].中国农业资源与区划,2021,42(7):121~127
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麦田喷灌的比较收益、障碍因素与推进对策以兖州运国家庭农场为例
王秀鹃1,蔡威熙2,韩若冰2,胡继连2
1.山东农业大学公共管理学院,泰安 271018;2.山东农业大学经济管理学院,泰安 271018
摘要:
目的 喷灌是农业节水的先进技术之一,农业生产实践中没有得到应有的推广应用,文章拟通过案例剖析,探究其中的原因与出路。方法 以山东兖州运国家庭农场30hm2小麦喷灌的实际案例为样本,通过与其他农户(包括散户和大户)的对比分析,评价麦田喷灌的比较收益。结果 通过对比分析得知,麦田喷灌具有非常显著的节水效果和比较收益,节水效率高达61.54%,综合增收幅度38.67%;主要的增收和节灌激励因素依次是:喷灌节省土地整理和看水用工(占比62.50%)、节约麦畦占地增产增收(占比23.44%)、节约水费(占比14.06%)。结论 散户喷灌推广的主要障碍是规模不经济和代灌协作障碍,其他大户(家庭农场)喷灌推广的障碍因素主要是地权不稳定和混杂经营。喷灌的推进建议:加快土地流转、推进农业规模经营,为推广喷灌创造基本规模条件;像稳定农地承包权那样稳定农地经营权,赋予各类经营大户可以期许的长久经营权益;引导发展“规模化+专业化”的现代家庭农场;针对农户节水的正外部性给予适当节水补贴。
关键词:  喷灌  比较收益  障碍因素  推进对策  节水补贴
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20210714
分类号:F323.2
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项“农业节水管理的水价改革理论与配套政策研究”(13BJY115);国家自然基金项目“华北地下水超采区‘以水定地’农业布局优化模式研究”(42007411)
COMPARATIVE REVENUE, OBSTACLE FACTORS AND PROMETING STRATEGY OF SPRINKLING IRRIGATION *——A CASE STUDY BASED ON YANZHOU, SHANDONG PROVINCE
Wang Xiujuan1, Cai Weixi2, Han Ruobing2, Hu Jilian2
1.College of Public Administration, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai′an 271018, Shandong, China;2.College of Economy Management, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai′an 271018, Shandong, China
Abstract:
This paper took 30hm2 wheat sprinkler irrigation land of Yunguo Family Farm in Yanzhou, Shandong province as a sample, and drew a conclusion by comparing it with other households (including individual land and large households). The conclusions were as follows: Wheat sprinkling irrigation had remarkable water-saving effect and comparative revenue. Water saving efficiency could reach to 61.54% and comprehensive income-increase rate could reach to 38.67%.The main factors of increasing income and incentives of saving irrigation by sprinkling irrigation ranked as the following: saving land consolidation and water monitoring labors (accounted for 62.50%), saving land area of wheat bed to increase production and income (accounted for 23.44%), saving water bills (accounted for 14.06%). In summary, the incentive effect of water saving is not obvious mainly because the water price is low. The main obstacles to the promotion of sprinkling irrigation by individual household are the uneconomical scale and the barriers of coordination of proxy irrigation. Other large household′s (family farm) obstacles were mainly the instability of land tenure and mixed management. Suggestions on promoting sprinkling irrigation in wheat field are showed as follows. Accelerating land circulation and promoting agricultural scale management to create basic scale conditions for spreading sprinkling irrigation; stabilizing farmland management rights as stabilizing farmland contractual rights, thus giving long-term business interests to all kinds of large household owners; guiding the development of "scale + specialization" modern family farms and appropriate water saving subsidies should be given according to the positive externality of household water saving.
Key words:  sprinkling irrigation  comparative revenue  obstacle factors  promoting strategy  water saving subsidy
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