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引用本文:张敏,卢士军,程广燕.马铃薯收获环节的实物和价值损耗研究[J].中国农业资源与区划,2021,42(7):19~26
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马铃薯收获环节的实物和价值损耗研究
张敏,卢士军,程广燕
农业农村部食物与营养发展研究所,北京 100081
摘要:
目的 为研究我国马铃薯在收获环节实物和价值损耗情况,从而针对性提出马铃薯在收获环节的降损措施,课题组在马铃薯主产区甘肃省和内蒙古进行实地调研。方法 文章通过数学统计方法如算术平均值、加权平均值等计算实物损耗量和实物损耗率,并从成本损失和收益损失两个层面计算价值损耗,通过SPSS软件进行独立样本T检验,检验调研结果是否有统计学意义。结果 马铃薯在收获环节的实物损耗率为5.12%,机械收获马铃薯的实物损耗率为4.35%,人工收获马铃薯的实物损耗率为6.10%。尽管机械收获马铃薯的生产总成本高于人工收获,但是机械收获的实物损耗率低于人工收获,导致机械收获的价值损耗同样小于人工收获。根据调研结果显示由于收获环节的损耗造成的收益损失占总收入的比例高达5.41%。结论 通过推广机械收获可以降低1.75%的损耗率,加大农民的培训可以降低0.87%的损耗率,扩大种植规模可以降低0.75%的损耗率,共可以降低3.37%的损耗率,从而增加马铃薯供给量和农民收入。
关键词:  马铃薯  收获环节  实物损耗  价值损耗  独立样本T检验
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20210703
分类号:F32
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“食物浪费综合效应评估及减量化技术引进与研发”(2016YFE0113100)
STUDY ON THE PHYSICAL AND VALUE WASTE OF POTATO HARVESTING
Zhang Min, Lu Shijun, Cheng Guangyan
Institute of Food and Nutrition Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
In order to study the physical and value waste of the potato during the harvesting process in China, and then put forward targeted measures to reduce the waste of the potato during the harvesting process, the research team conducts field research in Gansu province and Inner Mongolia, the main potato producing areas. The physical waste and the physical waste rate were calculated by mathematical statistical methods such as arithmetic mean and weighted average, and the value waste was calculated from the two aspects of cost waste and revenue waste. The independent sample T test by SPSS software was used to test whether the research results were statistically significant. The physical waste rate of harvesting of potatoes was 5.12%, the physical waste rate of mechanical harvesting of potatoes was 4.35%, and the physical waste rate of artificial harvesting of potatoes was 6.10%. Although the total cost of mechanical harvesting of potatoes was higher than artificial harvesting, the physical waste rate of mechanical harvesting was lower than artificial harvesting, resulting in a value waste of mechanical harvesting that was also less than artificial harvesting. According to the survey results, the revenue waste in the harvesting process accounted for 5.41% of total revenue. The promotion of mechanical harvesting can reduce the waste rate of 1.75%, the increase of the farmers′ training can reduce the waste rate of 0.87%, the expansion of planting scale can reduce the waste rate of 0.75%, so the total waste rate can be reduced by 3.37%, thereby increasing potato supply and farmers' income.
Key words:  potato  harvesting process  physical waste  value waste  independent sample T test
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