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引用本文:史鹏飞,卓仑·木塔力甫,王海,曾艳华.我国深度贫困地区的减贫成就与挑战以新疆X县为例[J].中国农业资源与区划,2021,42(5):114~121
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我国深度贫困地区的减贫成就与挑战以新疆X县为例
史鹏飞1,2,卓仑·木塔力甫3,王海4,曾艳华4
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049;3.新疆农业大学管理学院,乌鲁木齐 830052;4.广西大学商学院,南宁 530004
摘要:
目的 深度贫困地区是我国“脱贫攻坚”的硬骨头,但是鲜有研究对该地区的精准扶贫成效及未来挑战开展定量分析。方法 文章以新疆典型县域(X县)为例,描述分析了该县贫困发生率,贫困家庭的收入、住房和饮水情况,脱贫方式,特殊群体的贫困特征以及致贫原因随时间的变化趋势。结果 基于2013—2018年建档立卡贫困户信息,该县农村贫困发生率从2013年的37.2%下降到2018年的0.2%;贫困户人均收入从2 431元提高到11 281元;贫困农户的住房、饮水和医保等问题大多能在2年之内解决;大量青壮年和高学历人群依赖“政策脱贫”;因病和因残致贫、老年贫困问题和因学致贫具有一定的普遍性。结论 不返贫是可持续扶贫的最终目标。首先,逐步改善“财政兜底、一兜了之”的帮扶方式;其次,加强对特殊人群(例如,老年人口、高抚养比家庭等)的识别和帮扶力度;再次,消除因学致贫的可能性,同时为适龄劳动力提供有效的技能培训。
关键词:  深度贫困地区  精准扶贫  成就  挑战  新疆
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20210514
分类号:F323.8
基金项目:教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目“贫困地区新型职业农业培育的支持体系建设研究”(17YJAZH007) ①现行贫困标准是每人每年2 300元(2010年不变价),亦称“2010年标准” ②“坚持农业农村优先发展做好三农工作的若干意见”,http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/2019-02/19/content_5366917.htm.
ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN CHINA′S SEVERELY IMPOVERISHED AREASA CASE STUDY OF X COUNTY IN XINJIANG
Shi Pengfei1,2, Zhuolun·Mutalifu3, Wang Hai4, Zeng Yanhua4
1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;2.University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.School of Management, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, Xinjiang, China;4.Business School, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China
Abstract:
Fighting against poverty in the severely impoverished areas has been a tough issue to meet China's goal of eradicating extreme poverty. However, few studies conducted quantitative analysis on the achievements in target poverty alleviation and future challenges in these regions. Thus, taking a typical county (X county) in Xinjiang as an example, this paper described and analyzed the changing trends of rural poverty incidence, per capita net income of rural population, housing and water condition, measures to escape poverty, poverty features of special groups and causes of poverty over time. Based on the information of the registered poverty household from 2013 to 2018, the incidence of rural poverty in X county decreased from 37.2% in 2013 to 0.2% in 2018. The per capita income of poverty-stricken households rose from 2 431 yuan to 11 281 yuan. Most problems pertaining to housing, drinking water and health insurance for poor rural households could be solved within two years. However, a large number of young adults and highly educated rural poor relied on policy to lift themselves out of poverty. Illness, disability, aging problem and education were the pervasive causes of poverty. In conclusion, no poverty returning of rural population is the ultimate goal of sustainable poverty alleviation. We should gradually improve the way of simply subsidizing rural poor with national finance, strengthen the identification and support of special groups (such as the elderly, families with high dependency ratio, etc.) and eliminate the possibility of poverty caused by paying for education and provide effective skill trainings to the working-age population.
Key words:  severely impoverished areas  targeted poverty alleviation  achievements  challenges  Xinjiang
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