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引用本文:杨博琼,崔艺.北京市地区畜禽养殖污染总量估算[J].中国农业资源与区划,2021,42(5):77~81
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北京市地区畜禽养殖污染总量估算
杨博琼1,2,崔艺3
1.北京农学院经济管理学院,北京 102206;2.东北农业大学,黑龙江哈尔滨 150030;3.中国农业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083
摘要:
目的 随着我国经济的发展,畜禽养殖业发展迅速的同时,日益增加的畜禽粪便排放也带来了生态环境污染问题。北京市由于特殊的经济和政策环境,畜禽产品需求量较大从而畜禽粪便排放量进一步增多,因此必须要加强对于北京畜禽养殖产业污染的防治,为生态环境保护及居民身体健康提供坚实保障。方法 文章采用随机抽调与实地调研相结合的方式,了解北京市地区主要畜禽养殖情况,进一步使用畜禽养殖主要污染物排放量计算参数估算北京地区畜禽养殖主要污染物排放量。结果 北京地区多以养殖生猪、牛、肉鸡为主;北京市11个区县产污量较大的3个区依次是顺义区、房山区和平谷区,主要污染物为化学耗氧量和总氮;通过实地调研,发现北京地区畜禽养殖存在以下问题:(1)资金技术欠缺,无法按照要求购买必须的污染防治设备;(2)小型养殖户应对风险能力弱;(3)部分养殖户抱侥幸心理,认为投资污染防治设备没有必要。结论 加大畜禽养殖污染防治财政补贴力度,鼓励养殖者使用新型排污设备;各个区县主管农业的部门定期组织养殖者进行免费培训;加大扶持力度,促进有机肥市场发展;发挥资金及技术优势,优势互补;引导居民调整饮食结构,倡导健康生活与饮食习惯。
关键词:  畜禽养殖  污染  产污总量  参数估算  北京市
DOI:10.7621/cjarrp.1005-9121.20210509
分类号:F326.3
基金项目:北京市委组织部青年拔尖人才支持计划项目“基于环境承载利的京津冀畜禽养殖行业总量控制研究”(20160000 26833ZS08);国家自然科学基金面上项目“能源效率、环境规制与中国制糖业发展研究”(71773122)
ESTIMATION OF TOTAL POLLUTION OF LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY BREEDING IN BEIJING
Yang Boqiong1,2, Cui Yi3
1.School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China;2.Northeast Agricultural University,Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang, China;3.School of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
With the development of China's economy, livestock and poultry breeding industry develops rapidly, but the increased emissions of livestock and poultry manure also bring about certain ecological environment problems. Because of the special economic and policy environment in Beijing, the demand for livestock and poultry products is increasing. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of pollution in livestock and poultry breeding industry in Beijing, so as to provide a solid guarantee for the protection of ecological environment and the health of residents. The main livestock and poultry farming situation in Beijing was investigated by combining random sampling with field investigation. The main pollutant discharge from livestock and poultry farming in Beijing was estimated by using the calculation parameters of the main pollutant discharge from livestock and poultry farming. It was found that pig breeding, cattle and broiler were the main pollutants in Beijing area, and Shunyi district, Fangshan district and Pinggu district were the three districts with high pollution production in 11 districts and counties of Beijing, and the main pollutants were chemical oxygen consumption and total nitrogen. Through field investigation, the following problems were found in livestock and poultry breeding in Beijing area. (1) Lack of necessary pollution prevention and equipment cannot be purchased in accordance with the requirements; (2) Small-scale farmers were weak in responding to risks; (3) Some farmers took chances and thought it was not necessary to invest in pollution prevention and control equipment. So, it should give full play to its financial and technical advantages and complement each other's advantages, increase support efforts to promote the development of organic fertilizer market; increase financial subsidies for pollution prevention and control of livestock and poultry farming, meanwhile it should encourage farmers to use new sewage disposal equipment, and the departments in charge of agriculture in various districts and counties should regularly organize free training for farmers; and guide residents to adjust their food structure, advocate healthy life and eating habits in Beijing.
Key words:  livestock and poultry farming  pollution  total amount of pollution  estimation of parameters  Beijing
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