引用本文:郝 炘,李建华※,牛明雷,王俊伟,李平安,李 华.面向温室大棚辣椒的幼苗全自动移栽方法研究[J].中国农业信息,2019,31(3):68-78
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面向温室大棚辣椒的幼苗全自动移栽方法研究
郝 炘1, 李建华※2, 牛明雷3, 王俊伟4, 李平安5, 李 华6
1.天津农垦渤海农业集团有限公司,天津301823;2.天津市宝坻区朝霞街道办事处,天津301800;3.农业农村部工程建设服务中心,北京100081;4.北京市植物保护站,北京100029;5.湖南省益阳市桃江县农业局,益阳413499;6.内蒙古自治区赤峰市宁城县植保植检站,赤峰024200
摘要:
【目的】温室大棚中蔬菜的人工移栽存在工作量大、稳定性差、操作复杂等问题,劳动力成本占据蔬菜生产成本的50% 以上,研制全自动温室大棚钵苗移栽机可提高劳动生产率、保证秧苗栽植质量并减轻农民劳动强度。【方法】(1)温室大棚钵苗移栽机采用曲柄摇杆作为夹取机构,以步进电机作为曲柄的动力来源,曲柄摇杆配合摇杆前端的夹取爪与顶出装置,将钵苗夹取至投苗筒,再由投苗筒完成栽植工作;(2)通过计算与实验,确定了曲柄、连杆、摇杆、夹取爪材质、复位弹簧劲度系数等各项数据。【结果】通过实验,得出该设备针对辣椒幼苗移栽的最适宜土壤含水量为20.45%,最佳移动速度为0.4 m/s,移栽成功率达到90%。【结论】移栽机对于不同规格、含水率的钵苗有良好适应性,对钵苗夹取损伤小,相较于人工移栽与半自动移栽机性能可靠、标准化程度高,工作效率有较大提升。蔬菜移栽机构工作稳定可靠,操作简便,可满足自动化的钵苗移栽工作,为进一步研究经济作物从育苗到移栽提供了技术支持。
关键词:  温室大棚  蔬菜移栽机  辣椒钵苗  自动控制
DOI:10.12105/j.issn.1672-0423.20190307
分类号:
基金项目:高分辨率对地观测系统国家科技重大专项“高分农业遥感监测与评价示范系统”(09-Y30B03-9001-13/15);农业农村部农业农村资源监测与经济信息统计项目
Research on automatic transplanting method of pepper seedlings in greenhousebased on Mobile GIS
Hao Xin1, Li Jianhua※2, Niu Minglei3, Wang Junwei4, Li Ping‘an5, Li Hua6
1.Tianjin Agricultural Reclamation Bohai Agricultural Group Co.,Ltd,Tianjin 301823,China;2.Zhaoxia Street Office,Baodi District,Tianjin 301800,China;3.Construction Service Center,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs,Beijing 100081,China;4.Beijing Plant Protection Station,Beijing 100029,China;5.Agricultural Bureau of Taojiang County,Yiyang 413499,China;6.Plant Protection and Plant Inspection Station of Ningcheng County,Chifeng 024200,China
Abstract:
[Purpose]The artificial transplanting of vegetables in greenhouses leads to problems such as large workload,poor stability and complicated operation. Given the labor costs account for more than 50% of vegetable production costs,it is important to improve labor productivity,improve seedling quality and reduce farmers’ labor intensity. In this paper we developed and present a fully automatic greenhouse vegetable transplanting machine. [Method](1)During the development of this machine,the crank rocker is used as the clamping mechanism,and the stepping motor is used as the power source of the crank. The crank rocker is matched with the clamping claw and the ejection device at the front end of the rocker to clamp the seedling to the seedling. The tube is then planted by the seedling tube;(2)Through calculation and experiment,the data of crank,connecting rod,rocker,clamping claw material and return spring stiffness coefficient are determined. [Result] It is concluded that the optimum soil moisture content for transplanting pepper seedlings is 20.45%,the optimal moving speed is 0.4m/s,and the transplanting success rate is 90%.[ Conclusion]The transplanting machine has good adaptability to seedlings with different specifications and water content,and has less damage to the seedlings. Comparing to artificial transplanting and semi-automatic transplanting machines,the newly-developed machine has reliable performance,high standardization and high working efficiency,and thus has a great improvement. The vegetable transplanting machine works stably and reliably,and is easy to operate. It can meet the automated seedling transplanting work and provide technical support for further researches on economic crops from seedling to transplanting.
Key words:  greenhouse  vegetable transplanter  pepper seedling  automatic control